近年来，针对除草剂草甘膦农药的使用许可是否延长引起广泛讨论。2016年，作为欧盟常用除草剂草甘膦农药许可使用的最后一年，然而是否延长其使用许可却成为各方争论的焦点。近日，瓦赫宁根大学土壤物理与土地管理组Violette Geissen教授指导完成的题为' Distrubution of glyohsosate and aminomethmethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in agricultural topsoils of the European Union" 引起广泛关注。该文章发表在环境科学领域Q1期刊“ Science of the Total Environment"，该研究以10个欧盟成员国为对象，筛选300个农田土壤样品进行研究，定量分析了草甘膦农药及其主要降解产物草甘膦酸在土壤中的残留特征以及分布情况，并对其潜在环境风险进行了探讨。具体报道可参看瓦赫宁根大学新闻网。
This study showed that 45% of agricultural land in Europe contains glyphosate and AMPA, the most stable degradation product of glyphosate. The presence and concentrations of AMPA were higher than that of glyphosate with some measurements as high as 2 mg per kilogram of soil. (There is no official standard for soil. For drinking water the standard is a maximum of 0.1µg per litre.) ‘Glyphosate and AMPA are highly persistent once they are attached to soil particles. This increases the risk of environmental contamination through factors such as wind erosion or washing away of contaminated soil,’ explains Professor Violette Geissen from Wageningen University & Research and co-author of the above-mentioned study. ‘If glyphosate is used in areas with strong wind erosion, people can also be directly exposed to the agent. Because glyphosate attaches to minute particles it can easily be inhaled by people or animals.’
In addition to the wind factor, glyphosate and AMPA can also attach to soil particles and leech into the surface water. In 2012, Horth analysed more than 75,000 samples of surface water taken from all over Europe. Glyphosate was found in one third of the samples in concentrations sometimes exceeding 300 µg per litre. AMPA was found in half of 57,000 analysed samples in concentrations sometimes exceeding 200 µg per litre. (To reiterate, the standard for drinking water is 0.1 µg per litre.) However, not only surface water is contaminated. In 2013, Hoppe et al. showed that 44% of urine samples taken from 180 people in 18 European countries contained glyphosate. According to Violette Geissen, ‘This leads to the conclusion that the European Commission also needs to set standards for glyphosate and AMPA in soil and surface water as quickly as possible. The potential negative effects on soil biodiversity, aquatic life and people after being exposed to these substances are manifold. Considering the high levels of traces of glyphosate we found in soil across Europe, it is not prudent to extend the approval of glyphosate.’
Publication: ‘Distribution of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in agricultural topsoils of the European Union’.